Advancements and Environmental Implications in Oil Shale

The requirement for mining and crushing oil shale can be environmentally disruptive and energy-intensive. Kiviter Vertical Retort [43,44,45] ... The slower, lower-temperature process might limit the rate of production. Disclaimer/Publisher's Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the ...

Oil Shale

The shale oil is then refined of impurities, such as sulfur. In Situ . In situ is a new, experimental method of extracting shale oil. During the in situ process, oil shale is not mined or crushed. Instead, the rock is heated to its oil window while it is still underground. One technology used for in situ oil extraction is known as volumetric ...

Shale Rock: Geology, Composition, Uses

Shale has many commercial uses. It is a source material in the ceramics industry to make brick, tile, and pottery. Shale used to make pottery and building materials requires little processing besides crushing and mixing with water. Crushing shale and heating it with limestone makes cement for the construction industry.

XFEM-based numerical modeling of well performance

Predicting the production rate and estimating the ultimate recovery are of great significance for the optimization of shale gas development. One possible reason for production decline is the width reduction of propped fractures caused by proppant deformation, embedment, crushing, and viscoelasticity of the reservoir. In order to …

What Type of Crusher Is Best for Primary Crushing?

Hammermills can be used as a primary crusher in many types of aggregate and industrial applications, including limestone, marble, shale, gypsum, phosphate, bauxite, aluminum dross, uranium, cryolite, clinkers, quicklime, petroleum coke, coal and more. Using a combination of impact, shear and attrition reduction methods, Hammermills tend …

Exergetic life cycle assessment of Fushun-type shale oil production process

The process of shale oil production based on Fushun-type oil shale retorting technology is illustrated in Fig. 1, which is mainly divided into oil shale crush, screening, retorting, cooling-separation and recovery.After multiple crushing and screening, fine oil shale particles (diameter less than 8 mm) are transported to the power plant for …

(PDF) Production and Uses of Crushed Rock Aggregate from …

Aggregate is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates ...

Shale Oil and Gas Production Processes | ScienceDirect

Shale Oil and Gas Production Processes Book • 2019 Authors: James Speight About the book Browse this book By table of contents Book description Shale Oil and Gas …

11.25 Clay Processing

11.25.1 Process Description1-4. Clay is defined as a natural, earthy, fine-grained material, largely of a group of crystalline hydrous silicate minerals known as clay minerals. Clay minerals are composed mainly of silica, alumina, and water, but they may also contain appreciable quantities of iron, alkalies, and alkaline earths.

New approach of evaluating fracturing interference based on

Well, group A is a production well group in the Fuling shale gas field. Fuling shale gas field is located in Chongqing, southwest China, and it is a mountainous-hilly landform that structurally corresponds to the Wanxian synclinorium in the eastern Sichuan Basin's high-steep fold belt (Mu et al. 2011).The Upper Ordovician Wufeng Formation …

Chevron crush process (Chevron USA Inc., 2006)

Download scientific diagram | Chevron crush process (Chevron USA Inc., 2006) from publication: A Review of Shale Oil Production Methodologies and Its Impact to Global …

Development review and the prospect of oil shale in-situ catalysis

This paper provides a review of the current status of in-situ mining technology for oil shale, the mechanism of casein pyrolysis, and the research status of oil shale …

Numerical Simulation of Choke Size Optimization in a Shale

The choke size and replacement stages in the early flowback process are also important factors affecting the productivity of shale gas wells. Herein, the choke size is simulated from 3 to 9 mm, the duration of each stage is five days, and the increase range of each stage is 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm.

(PDF) An Overview of Shale Oil

Figure 1: K iviter process. Suitable for high calorific oil shales. Throughput: 900 -1000 tons/day oil shale. Heat carrier temperature: 750-950 ˚C. Retort outlet temperature: 150-250 ˚ C. Air ...

Effect of Shale Sample Particle Size on Pore Structure …

The original shale pore structure could be changed during the sample crushing process. For example, the closed pores and blind pores could be exposed to external space during crushing process, thus …

An Overview of Oil Shale Exteraction and Processing

The AGR process includes mining the oil shale and retorting these mined deposits in heating vessels known as retorts. Oil shale mining can take one of two forms, …

Hammer Mill Operating Principle

Coal and coke crushing. Preparation of tube mill feed on several non-abrasive materials. Gypsum crushing and pulverizing. Shale crushing. Grinding hay and grains for chopped feeds. Manufactured sand for concrete aggregates. Commercial crushed stone production. Dry crushing of ores for dry or wet concentration. Concrete recycling; …

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume IV.

For example, a nominal crude shale oil production rate of about 50,000 bbl/day will require mining at a rate exceeding present large-scale mining rates. The TOSCO II retorting process is the most energy intensive among Paraho, Union ''B,'' and BOM's GCR because of its complexity, which annuls the benefit of less mining.

How brick is made

The term brick refers to small units of building material, often made from fired clay and secured with mortar, a bonding agent comprising of cement, sand, and water. Long a popular material, brick retains heat, with-stands …

(PDF) A Review of Shale Oil Production Methodologies and

In-. situ conversion process can further reduce the. cost o f shale oil production because it is able to extract. more shale oil from a targeted deposits a rea than. the w ell can reach greater ...

The Complete Guide to Crushed Stone and Gravel

Crushed stone often has an angular and jagged edge because of the crushing process. Gravel, on the other hand, typically has a very smooth texture and surface because of the natural weathering and wear of being exposed to running water. Unlike crushed stone, gravel is usually sold and used in its natural state.

The six main steps of iron ore processing

Six steps to process iron ore. 1. Screening. We recommend that you begin by screening the iron ore to separate fine particles below the crusher's CSS before the crushing stage. A static screen is used to divert the fine particles for crushing. This step prevents overloading the crusher and increases its efficiency.

Crushed Stone Mining

Crushed Stone Mining. Crushed stone is an angular form of construction aggregate, made by breaking quarried rock into fragments that may be sorted, sized, and recombined into a variety of products. Crushed stone is typically quarried—that is, mined using benching methods (carrying out work from a ledge in a mine or quarry) and …

Oil shale

In situ processing differs from aboveground processing in that retorting to produce oil and gas takes place underground. No in situ processes are in use on a …


This chapter focuses on the trends that drive increased production from tar sands and oil shale, and discusses the geological, technical, environmental, and fiscal issues governing their development. Synopsis. Oil shale and tar sands occur in dozens of countries around the world. With in-place resources totaling at least 4 trillion barrels (bbl ...

Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil & Gas Wells Drilled in Shale

Hydraulic fracturing has also enabled production of natural gas liquids and oil from many wells. Rock units such as the Bakken Shale of North Dakota and the Niobrara Shale of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming are now yielding significant amounts of oil from hydraulic fracturing. Frac water containment pond: A water impoundment at a drill ...

How Cement is Made

Stage of Cement Manufacture. There are six main stages of the cement manufacturing process. Stage 1: Raw Material Extraction/Quarry The raw cement ingredients needed for cement production are limestone (calcium), sand and clay (silicon, aluminum, iron), shale, fly ash, mill scale, and bauxite. The ore rocks are quarried and crushed into smaller …

CHAPTER THREE Oil Shale Technologies

lected. The heating process is called retorting. Processes for producing shale oil gener-ally fall into one of two groups: mining, either underground or surface, followed by surface …

Coal Mining and Processing Methods

The production from a longwall mine today (one longwall section and two or three continuous miner sections) can exceed 7 million tons per year. With a second longwall and the necessary complement of continuous miners, production from an underground longwall mine can be well over 10 millions tons per year.

Oil Shale Extraction | HowStuffWorks

Oil Shale Extraction. The process of extracting liquid crude oil from the ground is comparatively simple to extracting oil shale. Pressure from gases trapped in the chamber where oil is present force the crude oil to the surface. After this pressure is alleviated, the more difficult secondary and tertiary phases of oil drilling begin.

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